Index Funds: What They Are and How They Work

Index Funds

Index funds: What they are and how they work.

At a time when the global market is crashing and stocks losing its values people are so scared of investing or trading stocks. Meta stock is crashing badly and that has led to Mark Zuckerberg net worth falling to a 5 year low.

So it is understandable that many people seems to be shying away from investing in stocks.

In fact, a survey from Ally Invest found that 65% of adults say they find investing in the stock market to be scary and/or intimidating. Each of those adults are scared for a reason. It could be because they have had an investment gone wrong. Sometimes it can be as a result of lack of quality investment advice or just a sheer bad investment. But whatever the case, that fear is holding you back from really growing your net worth.

However, the good news is that there are many easy ways to invest in stock and not lose. You don’t have to worry about ‘gambling’ with individual stocks, nor hiring an expensive advisor.

Yeah, some smart investors are still making it real big. So how are they doing it? How is it possible to forecast and come up with which stock to buy and stand a good chance of not losing, and that without an advisor? The answer is in understanding the term – index funds.

You heard me well – index funds. One of the easiest ways to get started investing is through index funds.

And in today’s blog post I will share in detail what an index fund is, how it works and a guide on how to invest.

What is Index Funds?

An index fund is a type of investment fund that is designed to follow certain preset rules or benchmark index. It can either be a mutual fund or an exchange-traded fund (ETF). This index may be created by the fund manager itself or by another company such as an investment bank or even a brokerage. These funds follow their benchmark index regardless of the state of the markets.

But before we proceed let’s take a closer look into how this fund works.

How Index Funds Works

So to explain in details how this funds works, the first thing you need to know is that rather than invest in individual stocks you go for a fund that is actually a collection of a group of companies. When you put money in an index fund, that cash is then used to invest in all the companies that make up the particular index. And this gives you a more diverse portfolio than if you were buying individual stocks.

I will explain this further using a popular index fund that you know – S&P 500. This is an index that tracks the performance of the 500 best performing companies in the U.S. Investing in an S&P 500 fund  means your investments are tied to the performance of a wide range of companies – the entire 500 companies to be precise.

So, whereas the returns of the individual stocks may differ; some high and others low, but as an investor what you get is the average of the total returns based on their combined performance.

Actually, the goal of this index funds is to mirror the same holdings of whatever index they track. And for this reason they are naturally diversified and thus hold a lower risk than individual stock holdings. Market indexes tend to have a good track record, too.

For example, staying with the case of S&P 500 we are tracking, though it fluctuates (most certainly), but historically we can tell that it generates nearly a 10% average annual return over time for investors.

FYI: I didn’t say that future returns will always be 10% – in fact, it is never guaranteed. The 10% quoted is from past performance.

Index Funds as a Form of Passive Investing

The good thing about Index investors is that they don’t need to actively manage the stocks and bonds investment as closely since the fund is just copying a particular index. This is why index funds are known as passive investing — and it’s what sets them apart from mutual funds.

Mutual funds are actively managed by fund managers who choose your investments. The goal with mutual funds is to beat the market, while the goal with index funds is simply to match the market’s performance. Index funds also have lower management costs than mutual funds. This is understandably so since they don’t require active human management on a daily basis. T

A common strategy for many investors who have a long investment timeline is to regularly invest money into an index fund. You can do this and watch your money grow over time.

Advantages of Index Funds as a Popular Investment Option?

Index funds are popular with investors because they promise ownership of a wide variety of stocks. They also promise greater diversification and lower risk – usually all at a low cost. That’s why many investors, especially beginners, find index funds to be superior investments to individual stocks.

Let’s explain each of those advantages:

  • Attractive returns: Like all stocks, major indexes will fluctuate for sure. But over time indexes have made solid returns. A good example remains the S&P 500’s long-term record of about 10 percent annually.
  • Diversification: Investors like index funds because they offer immediate diversification. With one purchase, investors can own a wide swath of companies. One share of an index fund based on the S&P 500 for example automatically provides 500 different companies. Similarly, a share of Nasdaq-100 fund offers exposure to about 100 companies.
  • Lower risk: Because they’re diversified, investing in an index fund is lower risk than owning a few individual stocks. In an individual stock, once it crashes, you lose. But with an index fund, one or two of the companies can afford to be losing so much money and you will still be in a good position. This though doesn’t mean you can’t lose money  but the index will usually fluctuate a lot less than an individual stock.
  • Low cost: Index funds can charge very little for these benefits, with a low expense ratio. For larger funds you may pay $3 to $10 per year for every $10,000 you have invested. When it comes to index funds, cost is one of the most important factors in your total return.

Are Index Funds a Good Investment?

I think the answer is obvious from our discussion so far.

As a matter of fact, most financial advisors and investment analysts all agree that index funding is good invest option especially for long-term investors. They are typically a low-cost options for obtaining a well-diversified portfolio that passively tracks an index.

Theoretically with an index fund, you may not make as much as you would have made from the best individual stocks, but your risk is at least highly reduced.


An index fund is a very good way of becoming a portfolio investor. It helps you diversify your investments and at the same time reduce your risks. Many investment advisors recommend it especially in a time where the stock market has become so volatile. There are several index funds for you to choose from here.

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